The first settlers arrived in what is now Cromwell in 1651. It was then known as the Upper Houses section of Middletown. For 200 years, Cromwell remained part of Middletown until incorporating as a separate town in 1851.
The Town of Cromwell comprises 13.5 square miles in the approximate geographical center of the State. It is 14 miles south of Hartford and 28 miles northeast of New Haven. The Connecticut River forms the eastern boundary of the Town. A major north/south highway, Interstate 91, with two Cromwell exits, runs through the Town. The Central Connecticut Expressway (Route 9), opened at the end of 1989, enhances the Town's location as it connects I-95 in Old Saybrook, I-91 in Cromwell and I-84, the State's major east/west highway in New Britain.
Cromwell's municipal government provides a full range of services including public safety (police department, animal control, and civil defense), public works (roadways, building and grounds, solid waste management, engineering, motor pool and building inspections), health, sanitation, wetlands protection and zoning compliance, senior citizens, youth services, social services, recreation, library, education and schools and general government administrative services. The Cromwell Fire District, under a separate government entity, provides fire, ambulance and water services.